Culicoides biting midges are present across most of the globe, playing key roles in the transmission of several important diseases that can affect horses and livestock.

Among the most damaging Culicoides-borne pathogens are those that cause African horse sickness, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and Schmallenberg, the livestock disease first reported in 2011.

Each of these viruses also causes outbreaks in wildlife and livestock globally that have been linked to severe economic losses and disease-related trade restrictions.

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